How do these patterns influence learning and achievement? For each pattern you identify, describe the consequences.
  • The patterns described in the section above, including intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, ultimately influence our learning and achievement, and determine whether or not the end result is an effective one. There are also consequences of each pattern, whether it is positive or negative.

  • Intrinsic motivation can influence the learning and achievement outcome through a person's interest and enjoyment. The more you are interested and genuinely like a subject, the more likely you are to tune in and absorb the information being learned. This can be based on someone's satisfaction, enjoyment, free choice, and interest in a subject. These will all have a positive outcome on a student's learning capability. An example of this would be if a child drew a picture of something they were interested in. Over an extended period of time the student will ultimately have more motivation to perfect and enhance their drawing because it was individualized and they created it by choice. As seen in the article written by Koestner,Deci, and Ryan, intrinsic motivation will have the most effective results on a learners academic career because they accomplish tasks out of their own self interest, rather then externally motivating them (2001, page 13).

  • On the contrary to intrinsic motivation, students can often times experience extrinsic motivation. Students are motivated to learn because of something external: whether that be a reward or a grade in a class, they have a purpose for learning based on external incentive. If students are learning to get something, they are ultimately not appreciating what they are learning. As seen in the Covington article, extrinsic motivation can interfere with a student's creative expression if too many guidelines or restrictions are put on their learning process. An example of this would be if a child draws a picture because they know they will receive a piece of candy from their teacher. Another example being that a teacher would tell the student to draw a very specific picture with particular guidelines added. Although the student is still drawing, their creative process is being diminished because of the overlying guidelines put on them. Grades often times can be considered the biggest extrinsic motivation that there is. Students strive to get the best grade possible and often times forget the purpose behind learning the material in the first place. They often times just accomplish the task of receiving the desired grade, and don't actually absorb what they just learned.

What teaching methods are effective at fostering productive motivation patterns? Identify and describe methods for fostering the positive motivation patterns related to your motivational perspective. Also, explain why these methods are effective.
  • Teachers ideally need to find a compromise between the two motivation types in order to target all student's incentives. An effective way to accomplish this is to determine what students want to achieve with their own self-performance and create different learning goals, whether that is for each individual student, or for the classroom as a whole. Some strategies for increasing motivation include but are not limited to: using rewards, clarifying the expectations of the classroom, creating a positive learning environment, and setting attainable goals. Teachers ultimately need to find what interests and motivates students in order to conduct the most effective intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. When a classroom feels a sense of equality, they are most likely to have a strong self determination in their learning process (Benabou & Tirole, 2003, page 503)

  • Teachers often times try to accomplish this by giving students choices. It is appealing at first to give students a lot of choice and to make learning their own, but it often times hurts their intrinsic drive and can be overwhelming. It can also reduce the quality of performance because more time and effort is put into the decision making process, as opposed to the actual creation part. If teachers don't give students enough choice in their learning, they can feel as if their enjoyment is reduced due to restriction. There becomes a feeling of responsibility looming over their task and students lose their sense of individuality. At the same time, student's focus is more directed at the task at hand and it reduces the feeling of choice overload. Teachers need to find a way to allow student's to make learning their own, while still have certain guidelines and accomplishing goals that need to be achieved.

  • Rewards are another teaching method used to foster productive motivation. Rewards can be a positive or negative concept, but ultimately a balance should be found.The most effective kind of reward is verbal reward. Everyone appreciates receiving words of affirmation. Another type of reward is tangible objects, whether that is a toy or candy. As mentioned in the article, tangible rewards can reduce the intrinsic motivation, while verbal rewards increase it. A way to balance this is to have unexpected rewards. That way, students are still accomplishing a task on their own, and receive a form of unexpected incentive without prompting. The opposite of rewards would be punishment which is can be good to a certain extent, but it shouldn't be used excessively or in a degrading way. Instead of focusing on rewards that will motivate our students, we should be giving them choices about certain activities and challenging them more in unique ways (Stockdale & Williams, 2004,).